4:24 And those women who are married except whom you rightfully possess. The decree of Allah upon you. And lawful to you are beyond these, that you seek them with your wealth desiring chastity, not lust. So for whatever you benefit from them, give them their bridal due as an obligation. And there is no sin on you concerning what you mutually agree to, beyond the obligation. Indeed, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
(It is interpreted that those “women” who are “prohibited” for marriage in Verse 4:24 are believers, married to believers, while “whom you rightfully possess” might be married to disbelievers, so they might have been taken from disbelieving people, or they emigrated from disbelieving people to believing people (4:100, 8:72), so Muslims are in charge of them. It is a matter of protection of women, not slavery or sex slaves)(Verse 4:24 does not exclude what you rightfully possess from marriage in order to have relations (this is confirmed by Verse 24:32), but whether she was already married to another man or not, they have to marry anyhow lest they commit adultery or fornication (25:68). This Verse is also explained in Verse 60:10, those believing women (i.e. “what your right hands possess) who are married to disbelievers, the believing women are not lawful for them, nor are they lawful for the believing women. And Verse 60:10 also says “there is no blame upon you if you marry them”. This sentence does not mean that “marriage is something bad, but you are not blamed if you do it”, but, according to the context, it means that there is no blame if you marry the married one, because if the believing woman was currently married to a disbelieving man, her marriage with a disbelieving man is nullified in Islam, because of the disbelief of her husband. So, Verses 60:10 and 4:24 do not exclude them from marriage)(Allah knows best)
4:25 And whoever among you is not able to marry free chaste believing women, then from those whom your right hands possess of believing girls. And Allah knows all about your faith. You are of one another. So marry them with the permission of their family and give them their bridal due in a fair manner. Chaste, not committing immorality and not taking secret lovers. Then if after marriage they commit adultery, then their punishment is half of that which is for free chaste women. That is for whoever among you who fears committing sin, and to be patient is better for you. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
(In verse 4:25, “So marry them” refers to those whom right hands possess, this is confirmed by this sentence: “Then if after marriage they commit adultery, then their punishment is half of that which is for free chaste women”; so, in this sentence, there is a distinction between “free chaste women”, which is explicitly mentioned, and what the “right hands possess”, which is also explicitly mentioned; then “right hands possess” is implicitly referred as “they”, “their” and “them”; in other words, “they” and “their” have been differentiated from “free chaste women” because there is a distinction between them in this sentence (“for one is half of that which is for the other”))(Allah knows best)
24:33 And let those who do not find marriage be chaste/refrain until Allah enriches them of His Bounty. And those who seek (yabtaghuna) the writing from among whom your right hands possess, give them the writing if you know any good in them, and give them from the wealth of Allah, which He has given you. And do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire (aradna) chastity, to seek (litabtaghu) temporary gain of the life of the world. And whoever compels them, then indeed, Allah is, after their compulsion, Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
(Verse 24:33 confirms that you have to marry in order to have relations (“those who seek the writing from among whom your right hands possess”), and you cannot marry them if they do not want to marry you)(In regard to “do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity”; the sentence does not imply that “prostitution” is allowed, but the root of “bighai” / “tabtaghu” / “yabtaghu” (prostitution / seek) is “Ba-Ghayn-Ya”, and it means “sought for or after, desired, endeavored to find and take and get (good or evil), unchaste, loving or affecting a thing, etc.”. So, according to the context of the Verse, you cannot compel them in regard to seeking / desiring a husband, if they want to remain chaste. This interpretation is confirmed within the same Verse, which uses the same root word than in a previous sentence “those who seek (Ba-Ghayn-Ya) the writing from among whom your right hands possess”. So, compelling them to get married if she desires to be chaste” is called “prostitution”. Prostitution / fornication / adultery are forbidden in Islam anyhow. So, sexual relations is always in the context of marrying freely in the Qur’an)(In Islam, prostitution is forbidden, but non-Muslims allow it, while it is known that most prostitutes are forced into sex work. In some western countries, it is estimated that 80% of them do it against their will. So, most prostitutes are in fact sex slaves)(Note: the root of “arad” is “Ra-Waw-Dal”, and it means”to seek, search, desire, etc.”)(Allah knows best)
23:5 And those who are guardians of their modesty 23:6 Except from their spouses or what they rightfully possess, then indeed, they are not blameworthy.
(Verses 23:5-6 and 70:29-30 are similar to Verse 24:30-31, so it confirms that the context is not about sexuality but about modesty in dressing and in looking at people (verse 24:31 says “and guard their modesty, and not display their adornment”). So “what they rightfully possess” is not an exception to marriage in order to have relations. So, if you are not married, you cannot have relations)(Allah knows best)
24:30 Say to the believing men to lower their gaze and they should guard their chastity/modesty. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is All-Aware of what they do. 24:31 And say to the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their chastity/modesty, and not display their adornment except what is apparent of it. And let them draw their head covers over their bosoms, and not display their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands’ fathers, or their sons, or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or that which their right hands possess, or the attendants having no physical desire among men, or children who are not aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah altogether O believers, so that you may succeed.
(The Verses of the Qur’an complement each other, so the exception required in Verse 24:30 (e.g. his wife) is found in Verse 24:31)(For example, that which their right hands possess or her husband’s sons are exceptions to the prohibition (24:31). The prohibition is with those outside their “circle”, who are also eligible for marriage. The mention of the husband’s sons would confirm that it is not about sexuality, because they do not have to lower their gaze, despite they could have sexual attraction, but the son cannot marry her after his father (4:22))(Allah knows best)
17:32 And do not go near adultery/fornication. Indeed, it is an immorality and an evil way.
25:68 And those who do not invoke with Allah another god, and do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden, except by right, and do not commit adultery/fornication. And whoever does that will meet a penalty.
(Adultery and fornication are relations outside marriage. This is explicitly forbidden in Islam, and is punishable (4:25, 24:2, 25:68))(Allah knows best)
24:2 The adulteress/fornicatress and the adulterer/fornicator, flog each of them with hundred lashes. And (let) not withhold you pity for them concerning the religion of Allah, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a group of the believers witness their punishment.
5:5 This day good things are made lawful for you; and the food of those who were given the Book is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. And chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Book before you, when you have given them their bridal due, being chaste, not being lewd, nor ones (who are) taking secret lovers. And whoever denies the faith - then surely his deeds are wasted and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers.
24:32 And marry the single among you and the righteous among your male slaves, and your female slaves. If they are poor, Allah will enrich them from His Bounty. And Allah is All-Encompassing, All-Knowing.
(“Marry” is explicitly mentioned in regard to slaves)(The mention of “slaves” does not mean that slavery is encouraged, but it is the ruling on a matter. See the article “Does Islam encourage slavery? Is slavery allowed in Islam?”)(Allah knows best)
4:3 And if you fear that not you will be able to do justice with the orphans, then marry what seems suitable to you from the women - two, or three, or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then one or what your right hands possess. That is more appropriate that you may not oppress.
(“What your right hands possess” is not an exception to be just, nor an exception to marry one, two, three or four, but the same rules are applied to all of them (“women”, orphans and what your right hand possess), because, according to the context, it is a matter of sequence or order: first the orphans, then “women”, then what your right hand possess, because the verse mentions “fa” between them, which indicates order, in Arabic)(The Verse also says “that is more appropriate that you may not oppress”, so the Verse does not make some women an exception in order to be unjust to them, but, instead, you cannot oppress people)(Allah knows best)
4:19 O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by force. And do not constraint them in order to take part of what you have given them unless they commit a clear immorality. And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them - perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah has placed much good in it.
(In Judaism and Christianity, according to Genesis 38:8, women must have relations with her husband’s brother, while in Islam women have no obligation or cannot be forced to have relations)(Allah knows best)
12:23 And she, in whose house he was, sought to seduce him. And she closed the doors and she said, "Come on you." He said, "I seek refuge in Allah. Indeed, he is my lord, Who has made good my stay. Indeed, the wrongdoers will not succeed." 12:24 And certainly she did desire him, and he would have desired her, if he had not seen the proof of his Lord. Thus, that We might avert from him evil and immorality. Indeed, he was of Our sincere slaves. … 12:30 And the women in the city said, "The wife of Aziz is seeking to seduce her slave boy; indeed, he has impassioned her with love. Indeed, we surely see her in clear error."
(According to Verses 12:23-30, having relations with a slave (e.g. outside marriage) is an “immorality”, “evil”, a wrong deed and an “error”)(Allah knows best)
60:10 O you who believe, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, then examine them. Allah is most knowing of their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers. They are not lawful for them, nor are they lawful for them. But give them what they have spent. And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their (bridal) dues. And do not hold to marriage bonds with disbelieving women, but ask for what you have spent, and let them ask for what they have spent. That is the Judgment of Allah. He judges between you. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
(The Verse may implicitly say that you can return the disbelieving women to the disbelievers. So, it could also be interpreted that there is no any reason to retain them with you (e.g. there is no any sexual purpose towards them), so you can release them, because there are no sexual slaves in Islam)(In regard to believing women, you can marry them, if they want. Verse 60:10 mentions “there is no blame upon you if you marry them”. This sentence does not mean that marriage is something bad, but you are not blamed if you do it, but according to the context, it means that there is no blame if you marry the married one, because if the believing woman was currently married to a disbelieving man, her marriage with a disbelieving man is nullified in Islam)(Allah knows best)
33:50 O Prophet, Indeed, We have made lawful to you your wives to whom you have given their bridal money and those whom you rightfully possess from what Allah has given to you and the daughters of your paternal uncles and the daughters of your paternal aunts and the daughters of your maternal uncles and the daughters of your maternal aunts who emigrated with you and a believing woman if she gives herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her - only for you, excluding the believers. We certainly, know what We have made obligatory upon them concerning their wives and those whom they rightfully possess, that there should be no discomfort upon you. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 33:51 You may defer whom you will of them or you may take to yourself whom you will. And whoever you desire of those (from) whom you (had) set aside - then (there is) no blame upon you. That (is) more suitable that their eyes may be cooled and not they grieve and (that) they may be pleased with what you have given them - all of them. And Allah knows what (is) in your hearts. And Allah is All-Knower, Most Forbearing. 33:52 It is not lawful for you women after (ba’du), and (wa) nor to exchange them for (other) wives, and (wa) even if their beauty pleases you, except those whom you rightfully possess. And Allah is an Observer over all things. 33:53 O you who believe, do not enter the houses of the Prophet except when permission is given to you for a meal, without awaiting its preparation. But when you are invited, then enter; and when you have eaten, then disperse without seeking to remain for a conversation. Indeed, that was troubling the Prophet, and he is shy of you. But Allah is not shy of the truth. And when you ask them for something, then ask them from behind a screen. That is purer for your hearts and their hearts. And it is not for you that you trouble the Messenger of Allah nor that you should ever marry his wives after him. Indeed, that is an enormity near Allah.
(Verse 33:50 is addressed to the Prophet. There is a mention of the wives, together with those whom rightfully possess and other women. According to the context, the Verse mentions those women who are lawful for marriage, besides the ones to whom he is already married (33:50)(who are also lawful). The Verse specifies “if she gives herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her”, in order to be lawful (33:50); the Verse explicitly mentions “lawful” and “marry”, so they are lawful “for marriage”, not lawful for “fornication or adultery”. On the other hand, she is not forced to marry him, because the Verse says “if she gives herself to the Prophet”)(In regard to Verse 33:52, according to the context, it is interpreted that those women he can exchange (33:52), are those set aside (33:51) among whom he rightfully possess, because those women “set aside” are not married to the Prophet, so they did not have relations; and according to other Verses, divorce is allowed but not encouraged in Islam (See the article below: “Can a Muslim divorce?”). So, he cannot exchange a “woman” (set aside) for a “wife” anyhow, except those women “set aside” from what he rightfully posses. So, if they were not previously married, then she can marry someone else. Verse 33:53 says “nor that you should ever marry his wives after him”)(The word “exchanging / changing / replacing” (Ba-Dal-Lam), in the Verse, is about dispensing with a woman in order to take another)(The root of “ba’du” (after) is “Ba-Ayn-Dal”, and it means “becoming distant, remote, far off, withdrew to a distance, aloof or far away, etc.”)(Allah knows best)
2:231 And when you divorce women and they reach their term, then either retain them in a fair manner or release them in a fair manner. And do not retain them to hurt them so that you transgress. And whoever does that, then indeed, he wrongs himself. And do not take the Verses of Allah in jest, and remember the Favors of Allah upon you and what is revealed to you of the Book and the wisdom by which He instructs you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is All-Knower of everything.
(Women can divorce in Islam, but they cannot divorce in Christianity (Matthew 5:32). So, she could be oppressed or abused by her husband)(In Judaism and Christianity, in Deuteronomy 22:28-29, if a man rapes a girl, he must marry her forever and can never divorce. So, this could rather punish the victim, and the rapist would go unpunished)(Allah knows best)
33:28 O Prophet, say to your wives, "If you desire the life of the world and its adornment, then come, I will provide for you and release you with a good release.
(Women can divorce. On the other hand, they are not forced to follow the religion, because there is no compulsion in Islam (2:256))(Allah knows best)
2:177 It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the east and the west but righteous is he who believes in Allah , the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, and the Prophets and gives wealth in spite of love for it to the near relatives, the orphans, the needy, the wayfarer, and those who ask, and in freeing the necks (slaves); and who establish prayer and give zakah and those who fulfill their covenant when they make it; and those who are patient in suffering, hardship, and periods of stress. Those are the ones who are true and it is those who are the righteous.
(In regard to Judaism and Christianity, in Deuteronomy 22:28-29, according to Numbers 31:17-18, “Now kill all the boys. And kill every woman who has slept with a man, but save for yourselves every girl who has never slept with a man”. This verse is in a context of slavery “save for yourselves”, and in a context of sex, because they take the virgin ones for themselves)(Allah knows best)
See also: Can a Muslim man or woman marry a Non-Muslim? https://aqtthq.blogspot.com.es/2016/03/can-muslim-man-or-woman-marry-non-muslim.html
See also: What does the Qur'an say about homosexuality?
See also: Is rape allowed?
See also: Are forced marriages allowed in Islam?
See also: Does Islam support pedophilia or child marriages? Did Prophet Muhammad marry a 6 year old?
See also: Does Islam encourage slavery? Is slavery allowed in Islam?
See also: Can a Muslim divorce his wife? Can a Muslim divorce her husband?
See also: Can you commit incest?
See also: Does Islam oppress women?