Wednesday, March 1, 2017

What is the punishment for adultery? And why is the punishment for women and men equal in Chapter 24 but different in Chapter 4?

24:2 The adulteress/fornicatress (al-zaniyatu) and the adulterer/fornicator (wal-zani), flog each of them with hundred lashes. And (let) not withhold you pity for them concerning the religion of Allah, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a group of the believers witness their punishment.

(The adulterers or fornicators are not sentenced to death, but to flogging (24:2). It is alleged that the flogging could kill a person; but Verse 24:5 says “except those who repent after that and reform”; “after that” refers to “after their testimony or accusation or disobedience”, because the last sentence in Verse 24:4 uses “wa” which is non-sequential, and Verse 24:5 starts with “except”, so Verse 24:5 refers to the last sentence in Verse 24:4. So, it does not refer to “after being flogged”, so there is a way out from the punishment)(Nevertheless, these Verses do not explicitly say that they have to be killed; and these Verses do not say that the flogging cannot be done in a way that they are not killed)(In regard to the ones who committed the immorality, Verse 4:18 says “And the repentance is not accepted from those who do evil deeds until when death is present to one of them”; so they can repent as long as they are alive)(“Zina” is sexual intercourse outside marriage, with a member of the opposite sex, whether they are married or not)(Note: Verse 24:4 says “and never accept their testimony”; this sentence uses the word “wa” (and) which is non-sequential, so it is a new sentence; it is interpreted that their testimony is not to be accepted anyhow, unless they bring four witnesses)(Allah knows best)

4:15 And those who commit immorality (l-fahishata) from your women, then bring against them four witnesses from among you. And if they testify, then confine them in their houses until death comes to them or Allah makes for them a way. 4:16 And the two among you who commit it, then punish both of them. But (fa) if they repent and correct themselves, then turn away from both of them. Indeed, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. 4:17 The repentance accepted by Allah is only for those who do evil in ignorance, then they repent soon after. Then it is those to whom Allah will turn in forgiveness, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

(Verse 4:15 mentions “immorality”, while Verse 24:2 refers to “adultery / fornication”; these Verses refer to different matters, so the punishment is different)(One interpretation of Verse 4:15 is that it only refers to women, it is an immorality in which men is not involved, so the punishment in Verse 4:15 is different than that in Verse 24:2. On the other hand, Verse 4:16 uses words in masculine dual, so women is not involved. So, these Verses in Chapters 4 and 24 refer to different matters. In regard to the punishment mentioned in Verses 4:15 and 4:16, there is no a different punishment for women and men because Verse 4:16 does not specify any punishment, so according to the context, it is the same punishment for men and for women (confined in their houses), because the Verses of the Qur’an complement each other. So, Verses 4:15-16 include other cases, not included in Verse 24:2, for example homosexuality. This is supported by Verses 27:54-55, in which homosexuality is considered an “immorality” (not adultery). Then, according to this interpretation, the flogging is only in case of zina (adultery / fornication), which involves a man and a woman)(In Verse 4:15, they are not sentenced to death, so, “until death comes to them” indicates that they are confined forever, unless they repent and correct themselves in order to get a way out (4:16). Confining them in their houses would stop the immorality)(Allah knows best)

4:25 And whoever among you is not able to marry free chaste believing women, then from those whom your right hands possess of believing girls. And Allah knows all about your faith. You are of one another. So marry them with the permission of their family and give them their bridal due in a fair manner. Chaste, not committing immorality and not taking secret lovers. Then if after marriage they commit adultery, then their punishment is half of that which is for free chaste women. That is for whoever among you who fears committing sin, and to be patient is better for you. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

(Verse 4:25 makes a distinction between “immorality” (before marriage), and “adultery / zina” (after marriage), so Chapters 4 and 24 refer to different matters, because these words can be used to distinguish two different matters)(Allah knows best)

27:54 And Lot, when he said to his people, "Do you commit immorality while you see? 27:55 Why do you approach men with lust instead of women? Nay, you are an ignorant people."

4:22 And do not marry those women whom your fathers married, except what has passed before, indeed it was an immorality and hateful, and an evil way.

(Verse 4:22 confirms that an immorality is not necessarily “zina” (adultery / fornication), because they are married. On the other hand, it also confirms that immorality is not only a relation between two men or two women, but also with someone of the opposite sex)(Allah knows best)

24:3 The fornicator (al-zani) (will) not marry except a fornicatress (zaniyatan), or a polytheist woman, and the fornicatress - (will) not marry except a fornicator or a polytheist man. And that is forbidden to the believers.

(This Verse supports that the definition of zina (adultery / fornication) does not include homosexuality, but zina is about those who have relations with the opposite sex)(Allah knows best)

25:68 And those who do not invoke with Allah another god, and do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden, except by right, and do not commit adultery/fornication. And whoever does that will meet a penalty. 25:69 The punishment will be doubled for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide forever therein humiliated 25:70 Except he who repents and believes and does righteous deeds, then for those Allah will replace their evil deeds with good ones. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

See also: Is there any contradiction in the Qur'an? (12) (Relations)

See also: Is there any contradiction in the Qur'an? (0) (Index)

See also: Is there “honor killing” in the Qur’an, as there is in the Bible?

See also: Are women less than men? Is a woman worth one-half of a man in Islam? Are men and women equal?

See also: Which religion is moderate and which is extreme? Who are the radicals? Judaism vs. Christianity vs. Islam vs. atheism

See also: Does Islam oppress women?

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